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Heart Failure



Heart Failure

Heart failure is a chronic medical condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to an inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues and organs. This can result in various symptoms and complications. Heart failure is typically caused by an underlying heart condition or other health problems that affect the heart’s ability to function properly.




There are two main types of heart failure.

  • Systolic Heart Failure occurs when the heart’s left ventricle loses its ability to contract effectively, reducing the amount of blood ejected with each heartbeat.
  • Diastolic Heart Failure occurs when the left ventricle becomes stiff and less able to relax and fill with blood, reducing the heart’s ability to fill properly, reducing the amount of blood ejected with each heartbeat.

Heart failure can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease (blocked or narrowed blood vessels that supply the heart), high blood pressure, heart valve disease, cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle), and other heart-related conditions. Certain lifestyle factors like smoking, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle can also contribute to its development.

The symptoms of heart failure may include:
– Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity or when lying flat.
– Fatigue and weakness.
– Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema).
– Rapid or irregular heartbeat.
– Persistent cough or wheezing.
– Fluid retention in the abdomen (ascites).
– Difficulty concentrating or confusion.

Diagnosis involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and various tests, such as echocardiography, which provides images of the heart’s structure and function. Blood tests, electrocardiograms (ECGs or EKGs), and stress tests may also be used to help diagnose and assess the severity of heart failure.

The management of heart failure includes several approaches:
– Medications: These may be prescribed to improve heart function, control symptoms, and manage underlying conditions.
– Lifestyle Changes: Recommendations often include dietary modifications (restricting salt intake), weight management, regular exercise, and quitting smoking.
– Surgical Procedures: In some cases, procedures like coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve repair or replacement, or implantation of devices like pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) may be necessary. Dr.Nikhil says, “ Surgical risk is high in this cohort of patients, but is rewarding as it can change prognosis quite dramatically!”
– Heart Transplant: For severe, end-stage heart failure that doesn’t respond to other treatments, a heart transplant may be considered.

The prognosis for heart failure can vary depending on the underlying cause, the severity of the condition, and how well it is managed. With appropriate treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure can lead fulfilling lives.

It’s important for individuals with heart failure to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan, including regular follow-up appointments to monitor the condition and adjust treatment as needed. Education and support for self-care are also critical for managing heart failure effectively.