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Coronary Artery disease

 Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as coronary heart disease (CHD) or ischemic heart disease is a medical condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrow or blocked. CAD is the most common type of heart disease and a leading cause of heart attacks.

The primary underlying cause of CAD is atherosclerosis, a gradual buildup of plaque (cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances) within the coronary arteries. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart. In some cases, the plaque can rupture or form blood clots, leading to a sudden blockage of an artery and a heart attack.


Risk factors for developing CAD include:

1. High blood pressure
2. High cholesterol levels
3. Smoking
4. Diabetes
5. Obesity
6. Physical inactivity.
7. Family history

Symptoms of CAD can vary, but common signs include chest pain or discomfort (angina), shortness of breath, and fatigue. Some people may experience no symptoms until they have a heart attack.

Treatment and management of CAD involve a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and medical procedures.

Dr.Nikhil’s Treatment Algorithm for CAD
1.Family History, Obesity, Smoking (Hidden CAD) – Lifestyle changes

2. Risk factors (Hidden CAD) – Risk factor treatment + Lifestyle changes
3. Mild and Moderate CAD – Heart Medications + Risk factor treatment + Lifestyle changes
4. Severe Disease 1 or 2 vessels – Stents + Heart Medications + Risk factor treatment + Lifestyle changes
5. Severe Disease 3 vessels or more – Surgery + Heart Medications + Risk factor treatment + Lifestyle changes

Prevention is crucial in managing CAD. Lifestyle modifications, such as maintaining a healthy diet, staying physically active, and managing risk factors, can help reduce the risk of developing CAD or slow its progression if you have the condition. Regular medical check-ups and discussions with a healthcare provider can help in the early detection and management of CAD.